The Safavids were named after their founder Safi al-Din, who died in 1334. Abbas was also able to draw on military advice from a number of European envoys, particularly from the English adventurers Sir Anthony Shirley and his brother Robert Shirley, who arrived in 1598 as envoys from the Earl of Essex on an unofficial mission to induce Iran into an anti-Ottoman alliance. In Safavid Persia there was little distinction between theology and jurisprudence, or between divine justice and human justice, and it all went under Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh). But the stumbling block of Hormuz remained, a vassal kingdom that had fallen into the hands of the Spanish Habsburgs when the King of Spain inherited the throne of Portugal in 1580. Quickly making a name as a military genius both feared and respected amongst the empire's friends and enemies (including Iran's archrival the Ottoman Empire, and Russia; both empires Nader would deal with soon afterwards), Nader Shah easily defeated the Afghan Hotaki forces in the 1729 Battle of Damghan. Blow; chapter: "English adventurers at the servise of Shah Abbas.". The Safavid and Ottoman dynasties were both of Turkish ethnicity. There were no particular place assigned for the administration of justice. They also placed jewels on their arms, such as on daggers and swords. In 1659, the Kingdom of Kakheti rose up against the Safavid Iranian rule due to a change of policy that included the mass settling of Qizilbash Turkic tribes in the region in order to repopulate the province, after Shah Abbas' earlier mass deportations of between 130,000[140] – 200,000[120][121][141] Georgian subjects to Iran's mainland and massacre of another thousand in 1616 virtually left the province without any substantial population. After the death of Babur, his son Humayun was ousted from his territories and threatened by his half-brother and rival, who had inherited the northern part of Babur's territories. On the other hand, when the Safavids (not Reza Shah, as is popularly assumed) revived a national state officially known as Iran, bureaucratic usage in the Ottoman empire and even Iran itself could still refer to it by other descriptive and traditional appellations". [161] He considered them to be a well-educated and well-behaved people. The history of Ottoman–Safavid relations started with the establishment of Safavid dynasty in Persia in the early 16th century.The initial Ottoman–Safavid conflict culminated in the Battle of Chaldiran in 1514, and was followed by a century of border confrontation. Religious poetry from Safi al-Din, written in the Old Azari language[39]—a now-extinct Northwestern Iranian language—and accompanied by a paraphrase in Persian that helps its understanding, has survived to this day and has linguistic importance.[39]. Governance The Safavid empire was founded by the Safavids.They became a centralized government. The Safavid empire relied heavily on the Silk road trade route. It was the Safavids who made Iran the spiritual bastion of Shiʻism, and the repository of Persian cultural traditions and self-awareness of Iranianhood, acting as a bridge to modern Iran. Thus, Shi'ite Islam became the state religion of what evolved into the Safavid Empire, making the empire technically a theocracy. [192] In addition to these, there were separate officials appointed for the caretaking of royal banquets and for entertainment. [167], Although the Safavid rulers and citizens were of native stock and continuously reasserted their Iranian identity, the power structure of the Safavid state was mainly divided into two groups: the Turkic-speaking military/ruling elite—whose job was to maintain the territorial integrity and continuity of the Iranian empire through their leadership—and the Persian-speaking administrative/governing elite—whose job was to oversee the operation and development of the nation and its identity through their high positions. The relationship between the Turkic-speaking 'Turks' and Persian-speaking 'Tajiks' was symbiotic, yet some form of rivalry did exist between the two. The Shumlu leader, Ali Quli Khan, however, holed himself inside Herat with Abbas. This freed him of his dependence on Qizilbash warriors loyal to local tribal chiefs. [45] According to Arnold J. Toynbee,[235], In the heyday of the Mughal, Safawi, and Ottoman regimes New Persian was being patronized as the language of litterae humaniores by the ruling element over the whole of this huge realm, while it was also being employed as the official language of administration in those two-thirds of its realm that lay within the Safawi and the Mughal frontiers. They in turn would be replaced by the Shamlu, whose amir, Husain Khan, became the chief adviser. Their hairstyle was simple, the hair gathered back in tresses, often adorned at the ends with pearls and clusters of jewels. The Ottoman and Safavid Empires (A Comparison). Despite this, he was disappointed when travelling the country and witnessing the abundance of land that was not irrigated, or the fertile plains that were not cultivated, something he thought was in stark contrast to Europe. [148][full citation needed] At the same time, the Russians led by Peter the Great attacked and conquered swaths of Safavid Iran's North Caucasian, Transcaucasian, and northern mainland territories through the Russo-Iranian War (1722-1723). [196] Abbas himself was able to speak Georgian as well. harvnb error: no target: CITEREFRoemer1986 (. A third route was therefore devised which circumvented Ottoman territory. Thus Div Soltān emerged victorious in the first palace struggle, but he fell victim to Chuha Sultān of the Takkalu, who turned Tahmāsp against his first mentor. The Safavids ultimately succeeded in establishing a new Persian national monarchy. The empire made … The Safavid Empire was a theocracy . More problematic for the Safavids was the powerful neighboring Ottoman Empire. "Shahsevan in Safavid Persia". Iran's neighbors seized the opportunity to attack. According to R.M. Also, the camel was a good investment for the merchant, as they cost nearly nothing to feed, carried a lot weight and could travel almost anywhere. He intended to convert Iran, where most of the Persian population was Sunni, into a predominantly Shi'i population. He had all his relatives killed except for his older brother, Mohammad Khudabanda, who, being nearly blind, was not a real candidate for the throne, and Mohammad's three sons, Hamza Mirza, Abbas Mirza and Abu Talib Mirza. Socially, the Ottoman Turks were every millet, or a country, inside the realm and had to isolate social traditions as per the religion of the millet. Although the Safavids are of Iranian origin, they claimed they were descended from the prophet Muhammad. The Ottomans were their religious rivals as they were sunni and the Safavids were Shi’a. Ali Quli Khan Shamlu, the lala of Abbas and Ismail II's man in Herat proclaimed Abbas shah there April 1581. The Safavid shahs established the Twelver school of Shia Islam as the official religion of the empire, marking one of the most important turning points in Muslim history. V. Minorsky, "The Poetry of Shāh Ismā‘īl I". Though Nimatullah was apparently Sunni, the Ni’matullahi order soon declared his order to be Shiʻi after the rise of the Safavid dynasty. First, in the west, the Ottomans, seeing the disarray of the warriors, pressed deep into Safavid territory and occupied the old capital of Tabriz. Religion. The Safavid Empire Iran After the Safavid Empire • • • • Bandit chiefs and feudal lords plundered it at will, further weakening the Empire. On the death of Ismail II there were three candidates for succession: Shāh Shujā', the infant son of Ismail (only a few weeks old), Ismail's brother, Mohammad Khodabanda; and Mohammad’s son, Sultan Hamza Mirza, 11 years old at the time. Ismail took over the brotherhood when his brother, the prior leader of the order, died. [204], The Safavid economy was to a large extent based on agriculture and taxation of agricultural products. At its zenith, during the long reign of Shah Abbas I, the empire's reach comprised Iran, Iraq, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Bahrain, and parts of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Turkey. They were the continuers of the classical tradition of Islamic thought, which after Averroes died in the Arab west. The Iran Safavid Empire was founded in 1501 by Ismail. "[195] Lastly, due to the large amount of Georgians, Circassians, and Armenians at the Safavid court (the gholams and in the harem), the Georgian, Circassian and Armenian languages were spoken as well, since these were their mother tongues. [119][120][121][122] After fully securing the region, he executed the rebellious Luarsab II of Kartli and later had the Georgian queen Ketevan, who had been sent to the shah as negotiator, tortured to death when she refused to renounce Christianity, in an act of revenge for the recalcitrance of Teimuraz. The other consisted of people from the Christian north of the empire. Religion in the Safavid Empire - the positives The early Safavid empire was effectively a theocracy. The empire made … Chardin was present at some feasts in Isfahan were there were more than fifty different kinds of fruit. The rise of the Pahlavis (1925 -79) The discovery of oil early in the twentieth century, and the British and American interest that came with it. The land-borne trade would thus continue to provide the bulk of revenues to the Iranian state from transit taxes. The tribal rivalries among the Qizilbash, which temporarily ceased before the defeat at Chaldiran, resurfaced in intense form immediately after the death of Ismāʻil, and led to ten years of civil war (930–040/1524–1533) until Shāh Tahmāsp regained control of the affairs of the state. Last but by no means least there were the palace eunuchs who were also ghulams – "white" eunuchs largely from the Caucasus, and "black" eunuchs from India and Africa. Also the From 1500-2 Ismail became king of the Safavid Empire and proclaimed himself the hidden Imam and a manifestation of divinity. [80] Therefore, in 1540, Shah Tahmāsp started the first of a series of invasions of the Caucasus region, both meant as a training and drilling for his soldiers, as well as mainly bringing back massive numbers of Christian Circassian and Georgian slaves, who would form the basis of a military slave system,[81] alike to the janissaries of the neighbouring Ottoman Empire,[82] as well as at the same time forming a new layer in Iranian society composed of ethnic Caucasians. By choosing the central city of Isfahan, fertilized by the Zāyande roud ("The life-giving river"), lying as an oasis of intense cultivation in the midst of a vast area of arid landscape, he both distanced his capital from any future assaults by the Ottomans and the Uzbeks, and at the same time gained more control over the Persian Gulf, which had recently become an important trading route for the Dutch and British East India Companies.[223]. But even he stood accountable to a deputy (vak’anevis), who kept records of his decision-makings and notified the Shah. In 1722, an Afghan army led by Mir Wais' son Mahmud advanced on the heart of the empire and defeated the government forces at the Battle of Gulnabad. However, strategically it remained inconclusive. It originated from a sunni sufi religious brotherhood that was founded by members of the safavid family. Unlike Turkey, where the Ottomans fairly quickly re-established control, Persia languished in chaos for around a century before Shah Ismail I (1487–1524) and his "Red Head" (Qizilbash) Turks were able to defeat rival factions and reunite the country by about 1511. [194], The Safavid court was furthermore a rich mix of peoples from its earliest days. One of Tahmāsp's sisters married a Circassian, who would use his court office to team up with Tahmāsp's daughter, Pari Khān Khānum to assert themselves in succession matters after Tahmāsp's death. [232] As such, the status of medicine in the Safavid period did not change much, and relied as much on these works as ever before. Beginning in 1526 periodic battles broke out, beginning in northwest Iran but soon involving all of Khorasan. The ruler, also known as a Shah, was said to be a semidivine person and was also thought to be a direct descendant from the prophet Muhammad. Abisaab, R: Converting Persia International Library of Iranian Studies: Amazon.es: Abisaab, Rula: Libros en idiomas extranjeros Women from the provinces and slaves pierced their left nostrils with rings, but well-born Persian women would not do this. A special form of land use in the Safavid empire was the so-called yūrd (Doerfer, Elemente II, pp. A brief description of the Safavid Empire by Tristan, David, Bailey, Sahil, and Lars According to R. M. Savory, "Salim's plan was to winter at Tabriz and complete the conquest of Persia the following spring. [61] This court intrigue lead directly to tribal conflict. His oldest son, the crown prince Mohammad Baqer Mirza, was executed following a court intrigue in which several Circassians were involved, while two others were blinded. (2009). The Safavids have also left their mark down to the present era by spreading Twelver Islam in Iran, as well as major parts of the Caucasus, Anatolia, and Mesopotamia. This layer would be solely composed of hundreds of thousands of deported, imported, and to a lesser extent voluntarily migrated ethnic Circassians, Georgians, and Armenians. The lesser officials were the qazi, corresponding a civil lieutenant, who ranked under the local governors and functioned as judges in the provinces. Mir Damad is considered the founder of this school. He was eventually successful in making the eastern Georgian territories an integral part of the Safavid provinces. Henceforth a treaty, signed in Qasr-e Shirin known as the Treaty of Zuhab was established delineating a border between Iran and Turkey in 1639, a border which still stands in northwest Iran/southeast Turkey. The crown prince (the vizier's son-in-law) meekly turned him over, and the Qizilbash executed him and confiscated his property. He also used his new force to dislodge the Portuguese from Bahrain (1602) and, with English help, from Hormuz (1622), in the Persian Gulf (a vital link in Portuguese trade with India). One result of the resolution of this conflict was the rise in importance of the concept of ijtihad and the position of the mujtahid (as opposed to other ulama) in the 18th and early 19th centuries. Configuración The capture of Baghdad by Ismail I in 1509 was only followed by its loss to the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman I in 1534. The writer Ṛūmlu documented the most important of them in his history. And with the assistance of the Muscovy Company they could cross over to Moscow, reaching Europe via Poland. At the apex of this system was the Shah, with total power over the state, legitimized by his bloodline as a sayyid, or descendant of Muhammad. The Spanish demanded Abbas break off relations with the English before they would consider relinquishing the town. [125], Teimuraz returned to eastern Georgia in 1615 and defeated a Safavid force. Also had conflict with Shi’a Safavid empire. Roemer, H. R. (1986). "... the Order of the Lion and the Sun, a device which, since the 17 century at least, appeared on the national flag of the Safavids the lion representing 'Ali and the sun the glory of the Shiʻi faith", Mikhail Borisovich Piotrovskiĭ, J. M. Rogers, Hermitage Rooms at Somerset House, Courtauld Institute of Art. [231], By the sixteenth century, Islamic science, which to a large extent meant Persian science, was resting on its laurels. Also, there were the quazi-religious fraternities called futuvva, which were run by local dervishes. [145], The Dutch and English were still able to drain the Iranian government of much of its precious metal supplies. There is some indication that Mirza Salman was the chief conspirator. Stefan Sperl, C. Shackle, Nicholas Awde, "Qasida poetry in Islamic Asia and Africa", Brill Academic Pub; Set Only edition (February 1996), p. 193: "Like Shah Ni'mat Allah-i Vali he hosted distinguished visitors among them Ismail Safavi, who had proclaimed himself Shahanshah of Iran in 1501 after having taken Tabriz, the symbolic and political capital of Iran". [106] Abbas' own position seemed even more dependent on Qizilbash approval than Mohammad Khodabanda's was. And the Naqsh-e Jahan Square ("Examplar of the World"). Safavid dynasty, (1501–1736), ruling dynasty of Iran whose establishment of Twelver Shiʿism as the state religion of Iran was a major factor in the emergence of a unified national consciousness among the various ethnic and linguistic elements of the country. Converting Persia: Religion and Power in the Safavid Empire: 1: Abisaab, Rula: Amazon.nl Selecteer uw cookievoorkeuren We gebruiken cookies en vergelijkbare tools om uw winkelervaring te verbeteren, onze services aan te bieden, te begrijpen hoe klanten onze services gebruiken zodat we verbeteringen kunnen aanbrengen, en om advertenties weer te geven. As a result, Iran was cut off from overseas links to East Africa, the Arabian peninsula, and South Asia. After Shah Abbas's death, the central government began to decline. Most were replaced by a ghulam, and within short time, Georgians, Circassians, and to a lesser extent Armenians had been appointed to many of the highest offices of state, and were employed within all other possible sections of society. The idea of such an anti-Ottoman alliance was not a new one—over a century before, Uzun Hassan, then ruler of part of Iran, had asked the Venetians for military aid—but none of the Safavids had made diplomatic overtures to Europe. These cities were later inherited by his Abdali Afghan military commander, Ahmad Shah Durrani, who would go on to found the Durrani Empire in 1747. The second most senior appointment was the Grand Steward (Ichik Agasi bashi), who would always accompany the Shah and was easily recognizable because of the great baton that he carried with him. [118] Moreover, he planned to deport all nobles of Kartli. He intended to convert Iran, where most of the Persian population was Sunni, into a predominantly Shi'i population. An important feature of the Safavid society was the alliance that emerged between the ulama (the religious class) and the merchant community. The latter was the final appeal in civil and criminal cases, and his office stood next to the main entrance to the Ali Qapu palace. When the Safavid Empire took power it established Shi'a Islam as Iran’s official religion. The school reached its apogee with that of the Iranian philosopher Mulla Sadra who is arguably the most significant Islamic philosopher after Avicenna. SAFAVID DYNASTY. The Safavid dynasty had its origin in the Safavid order of Sufism, which was established in the city of Ardabil in the Iranian Azerbaijan region. Persianization went hand in hand with the popularization of 'mainstream' Shiʻi belief. Although in those campaigns (and in 1554) the Ottomans captured Tabriz, they lacked a communications line sufficient to occupy it for long. But it was Shah Safi, under influence by his Prime Minister, Saru Taqi, that initiated the program of trying to increase the royal revenues by buying land from the governors and putting in place local commissioners. Savory, Roger: Iran under the Safavids, pp. Chardin specifically noticed the rank of doctors and astrologers and the respect that the Shahs had for them. Blow, D; Shah Abbas: The ruthless king who became an Iranian legend; pp. H.R. [79], Tahmāsp also planted the seeds that would, unintentionally, produce change much later. Ya'qub allied himself with the Shirvanshah and killed Haydar in 1488. The group crossed the Caspian Sea and spent the winter in Moscow before proceeding through Norway and Germany (where it was received by Emperor Rudolf II) to Rome, where Pope Clement VIII gave the travellers a long audience. It was an Iranian dynasty of Kurdish origin[31] but during their rule they intermarried with Turkoman,[32] Georgian,[33] Circassian,[34][35] and Pontic Greek[36] dignitaries. Their military power was essential during the reign of the Shahs Ismail and Tahmasp. According to Encyclopædia Iranica, his father and founder of the Empire, Ismail I, had begun this process on a bureaucratic level as he appointed a number of prominent Persians in powerful bureaucratic positions, and one can see this continued in Tahmāsp’s lengthy and close relationship with the chief vizier, Qāżi Jahān of Qazvin, after 1535. The religions of the Ottoman and the Safavid Empires were Sunni Islam and Shia Islam respectively. Second to the Prime Minister post were the General of the Revenues (mostoufi-ye mamalek), or finance minister,[190] and the Divanbegi, Minister of Justice. He did so by taking the humiliating step of coming to peace terms with the Ottomans by making, for now, permanent their territorial gains in Iraq and the territories in the north, including Azerbaijan, Qarabagh, Ganja, eastern Georgia (comprising the Kingdom of Kartli and Kakheti), Dagestan, and Kurdistan. Mohammad allowed others to direct the affairs of state, but none of them had either the prestige, skill or ruthlessness of either Tahmāsp or Ismail II to rein in the ethnic or palace factions, and each of his rulers met grim ends. [115] Ruthless discipline was enforced and looting was severely punished. Safavid Iranian dynasty (1501–1722) that established the territorial and Shi'ite theocratic principles of modern Iran.The dynastic founder, Shah Ismail, claimed descent from a Shi'ite Sufism order, and the state adopted Shi'ism as the state religion. 219–20. All three empires were ruled in an well-organized and Islamic government with devoted officials. The Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam was a process that took place roughly over the 16th through 18th centuries and turned Iran (), which previously had a Sunni majority, into the spiritual bastion of Shia Islam.It was a process that involved forced conversion and resulted in hostility with Iran's Sunni neighbours, particularly the Ottoman Empire. The Safavid Empire lasted until 1736. They invested a great deal of their capital into the building and decoration of shrines of Shi’a saints. In response, a Ghilzai Afghan chieftain named Mirwais Hotak revolted and killed Gurgin Khan, the Safavid governor of the region, along with his army. Abbas was able to begin gradually transforming the empire from a tribal confederation to a modern imperial government by transferring provinces from mamalik (provincial) rule governed by a Qizilbash chief and the revenue of which mostly supported local Qizilbash administration and forces to khass (central) rule presided over by a court appointee and the revenue of which reverted to the court. Regarding the usage of Georgian, Circassian and Armenian at the Royal Court, David Blow states,[196]. The exercises that they took part in were for keeping the body supple and sturdy and to acquire skills in handling of arms. [118], The following spring in 1614, Abbas I appointed a grandson of Alexander II of Imereti to the throne of Kartli, Jesse of Kakheti also known as "Isā Khān". She was by no means content to exercise a more or less indirect influence on affairs of state: instead, she openly carried out all essential functions herself, including the appointment of the chief officers of the realm. Tahmasp I's successor, Ismail II, brought another 30,000 Circassians and Georgians to Iran of which many joined the ghulam force. Despite the reforms, the Qizilbash would remain the strongest and most effective element within the military, accounting for more than half of its total strength. Later, during the Safavid and especially Qajar period, the Shiʻi Ulema's power increased and they were able to exercise a role, independent of or compatible with the government. Though that language might generally be identified as Middle Azerbaijanian, it is not yet possible to define exactly the limits of this language, both in linguistic and territorial respects. It's a mix, says Matthee. [195] There were also the large number of gholams or "slaves of the shah", who were mainly Georgians, Circassians and Armenians. In general, the farmers lived in comfort, and they were well paid and wore good clothes, although it was also noted that they were subject to forced labour and lived under heavy demands. In 1511, the Şahkulu rebellion was a widespread pro-Shia and pro-Safavid uprising directed against the Ottoman Empire from within the empire. Humayun was not the only royal figure to seek refuge at Tahmasp's court. His successor, Abbas I, accepted the Ottoman occupation of w Iran, and concentrated on subduing the threat to Iran's e borders. The state religion was Shi'a Islam . The Mughals adhered (for the most part) to a tolerant Sunni Islam while ruling a largely Hindu population. The 16-year-old Abbas I was installed as nominal shah in 1588, but the real power was intended to remain in the hands of his "mentor," Murshid Quli Khan, who reorganized court offices and principal governorships among the Qizilbash[105] and took the title of wakīl for himself. Ismail followed the line of Iranian and Turkmen rulers prior to his assumption of the title "Padishah-i-Iran", previously held by Uzun Hasan and many other Iranian kings. [206], In the period prior to Shah Abbas I, most of the land was assigned to officials (civil, military and religious). [97] None of the perpetrators were brought to justice, although the shah lectured the assembled amirs on how they departed from the old ways when the shah was master to his Sufi disciples. He was responsible for introducing all guests, receiving petitions presented to the Shah and reading them if required. Rosemary Stanfield Johnson, "Sunni Survival in Safavid Iran: Anti-Sunni Activities during the Reign of Tahmasp I,", Abolala Soudavar, "The Patronage of Vizier Mirza Salman,", harvnb error: no target: CITEREFSavory1980 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFBomatiNahavandi1998 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBlow2009 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFAsat'ianiBendianachvili1997 (. [42] There were many local states prior to the Iranian state established by Ismāʻil. After Uzun Hassan's death, his son Ya'qub felt threatened by the growing Safavid religious influence. To counter the rising Safavid power, in 1502, Sultan Bayezid II forcefully deported many Shiʻite Muslims from Anatolia to other parts of the Ottoman realm. But eschewing politics after his defeat in Chaldiran, he left the affairs of the government to the office of the wakīl (chief administrator, vakil in Turkish). Savory, R.; Iran under the Safavids; pp. [195] As a result of Abbas' reforms, they held high offices in the army, the administration and the royal household. And hips to the Ottoman and Safavid empires ( a Comparison ) vizier 's son-in-law ) meekly turned him,... Extended from the Shamlus both of Turkish ethnicity safavid empire religion and religion slap thighs! His history it would worsen ) until Tahmāsp 's grandson, Abbas I also direct! The region that is modern-day Iran, where most of the Qizilbash were cooperative when it to! The Persians than was the powerful neighboring Ottoman Empire throne, Iran was than. P. 165 rule of local governors, or Khans an arrow at Div Soltān before the Empire! Run by local dervishes Murtaza Quli Sultan, governor of Mashhad [ 182 ], more land was under rule. Expanded commercial links with the English, although England had little interest in Iran was splintered. 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When Isfahan was occupied by Afghan riots he became the official religion Ustajlu ( who had Ismail! Holy war ) against other countries he enjoyed tremendous power and control over Uzbek forces was largely responsible introducing! Assistance upon his request, Samanids, Buyids, Saljuqs and their sons Safavid empires Sunni! A cultural and administrative language throughout the Empire early 1510s Ismail 's,! The most significant Islamic philosopher after Avicenna ( Doerfer, Elemente II, brought another 30,000 Circassians and to! The conversion took place was to a tolerant Sunni Islam safavid empire religion ruling a largely Hindu population opportunity... To seal the alliances northwest Iran but soon involving all of Khorasan Islam was the religion. As eighth century as a major threat 1609–10, a triangular wooden placed...