of EAF and ladle slag together with 2% of cement and 16 cm (5/8 in.) Long term behavior of steel slag used for unbound rural roads. Long term behavior of steel slag used for unbound rural roads. Suction cups were used to collect the seepage water in the middle and the edge zone of both sections with either EAF slag and natural aggregate in the road base as well as 5 m (16.4 ft.) to the side of the test road. The dumped molten ferronickel slag is fragmented by “thermal shock.” during ambient cooling in the slag storage area (A). Its bulk density is in the range of 1.6 tons per cubic metres (t/cc) to1.9 t/cc. Laboratory and road tests were carried out to investigate the leaching behavior of the slag materials. 0000009714 00000 n 0000099650 00000 n The composition of the parent glass was designed by thermodynamic calculations with FactSage software. 0000006552 00000 n 0000007248 00000 n 1.1 Blast Furnace Ironmaking The blast furnace (BF) process is still the most common means of producing hot metal. Studies also showed how mixed use of EAF and ladle slag can reduce the binding agent required in stabilized base and subbase course. 0000017627 00000 n The materials used are summarized in Table 8.5. 0000104109 00000 n The physical properties of Ground Granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) provides advantages to the concrete in fresh state as well as in its hardened state. 0000004901 00000 n 0000015655 00000 n 0000224991 00000 n The use of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) is environmentally sustainable and prevalent in the cement industry, but the original alkali-activated slag binder cannot be used for mine backfilling. 0000033550 00000 n 0000003830 00000 n Properties of BF slag. 0000081000 00000 n Each layer is 20 cm (8 in.) 0000005620 00000 n The blast furnace slag can be granulated slag (GBFS) or air-cooled blast furnace slag (ACBFS). PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Blast-furnace slag is tapped from the furnace as a liquid, which contains gases held in solution. High Temperature Properties of BOF Slag and its Behaviour in the Blast Furnace Lena Sundqvist okvist SSAB Tunnplat AB, Luleii and Lulea University of Technology, Lulea / Sweden Slag formation in the bosh and raceway is an important issue in the blast furnace process. 0000006214 00000 n 0000006326 00000 n 0000062424 00000 n Table 8.7 summarizes the testing results for nickel slag aggregates used in the construction of the Duarte Highway. Table 8.7. 8.5 and 8.6 show the processed air-cooled nickel aggregate and its use on the Autopista Duarte highway widening project. 0000101484 00000 n 0000065008 00000 n smooth slag formation in the blast furnace results in a de-crease in the volume of bosh slag and prevents the forma-tion of a bosh slag with excessive basicity.1–3)At normal blast furnace operation, the tuyere slag, formed by the ash content in fuels combusted in front … 8.5. Ground granulated blast furnace slag is an eco-friendly material with regard to its production process and usage. Depending on the method used to cool the molten slag, different types of products are produced: Air-cooled blast furnace slag Angular, roughly cubical, and rough, porous, or … The mixture of natural soil and EAF and ladle slag presented a higher strength than the slag alone. Steelmaking slag is an integral part of the steelmaking process. The results have proved that no environmentally relevant amounts of heavy metals or salts had leached out of the material and have influence on the groundwater. 0000078153 00000 n 0000080456 00000 n 0000010584 00000 n 8.6. a solid that is free from voids. Table 8.6 presents the cement stabilized pavement structure. 0000002977 00000 n 0000005356 00000 n All materials are characterized concerning technical qualities, mineral and chemical composition, and leaching properties. 0000013819 00000 n It is produced during the separation of the liquid steel from impurities in steelmaking furnace and is a non-metallic by-product of steelmaking process. Data from Wang, G., Thompson, R., & Wang, Y. +�7�MS�&�ٝ�m�;n�.�O���fu�d�Tu��i�,�E���������ٟ��̤���羻��Eu���$��U����y��o_M�����x�Mo&f>7U�?��h��h���ۦ����m����9�d6^s3[�y����k�}�����n8>���|�Rh ���M�)d�%t��h)�yh ��ճw(��������@�v��V��>� a�0�9�l- �~?��%��ӒS�i�)��rZr 2008). 0000011016 00000 n 0000002777 00000 n The bearing capacity tracked for 6 months in various points of the test road showed a continuous increase of the modulus. 0000083723 00000 n Basic oxygen steel slag is relatively nonporous and produces a high-density aggregate with high crushing strength. 0000077257 00000 n Fragmented sized and crushed and screened to a wide range of gradations for highway construction uses (B). 0000006440 00000 n (2010) reported on test road sections in both unbound and cement stabilized base courses using EAF and ladle slag. 0000100526 00000 n 2006, Xu et al. Steel slag is a byproduct from either the conversion of iron to steel in a basic oxygen furnace, or the melting of scrap to make steel in an electric arc furnace. 3-1). Table 8.4. 0000099991 00000 n By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Fig. Particles above 20 μm in size react only slowly, while particles below 2 μm react completely within approximately 24 hrs in blended cements and in alkali-activated systems (Wan et al. 20 cm (67%) EAF and ladle slags (expansion rate of mixture 1.18%), EAF slag–3 month aging with expansion rate of 0.93%; ladle slag–3 month aging with expansion rate of 3.34%. 0000019131 00000 n 0000014275 00000 n In: Data from Wang, G., Thompson, R., & Wang, Y. Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2(2208), 1–8. 0000016025 00000 n Blast furnace slag usage and guidance for Indiana (Joint Transporta-tion … PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Blast-furnace slag is tapped from the furnace as a liquid, which contains gases held in solution. 2SiO2), as well as depolymerized calcium silicate glasses. Based on considerable practical positive international experience as well as satisfactory local use for several years, leachate characterization, mineralogical evaluations, and the favorable comprehensive accelerated stability and durability testing, nickel slag was given full project approval for engineered fill, granular subbase, and HMA aggregate use. 0000083209 00000 n 0000099374 00000 n Mohit Jain. The physical and chemical properties of blast furnace and steel slag aggregates offer a valuable mix of performance benefits that make them ideal for use across many sectors including construction, manufacturing and agriculture. 0000023214 00000 n 0000077980 00000 n 2004, Wang et al. % since it results from a reduction process. Basic slag is a co-product of steelmaking, and is typically produced either through the blast furnace- oxygen converterroute or the electric arc furnace- ladle furnace route. The results showed that the minimum compressive strength required can be obtained by adding 2% of cement. 0000002256 00000 n However, despite this quality control within individual locations, slag compositions do vary between specific furnaces and ores. (2018). 8.4. 0000092112 00000 n Generally, the use of slag aggregates and slag … (i) blast-furnace slag (ironmaking slag), (ii) steel-furnace slag, (a) basic-oxygen-furnace (BOF) slag, (b) electric-arc-furnace (EAF) slag, (c) ladle slag. The grindability index of steelmaking slag is 0.7, in contrast with the value of 0.96 and 1.0 for blast furnace slag and standard sand respectively. 0000100324 00000 n 0000011736 00000 n 0000004874 00000 n To flux the silica produced during steelmaking, limestone and/or dolomite are added, as well as other types of slag conditioners such as calcium aluminate or fluorspar . AbstractIn this study, the blast furnace slag of the Baotou Steel and Iron Company was used as the main raw material to prepare glass ceramics with diopside as the main crystal phase. PROPERTIES OF BLAST FURNACE SLAG CONCRETE: The properties of materials used to manufacture concrete are those in the previously described standard AS3582.2 for slag as : a supplementary cementitious material: 11, AS3972 for blended cements: 12: and relevant provisions in AS2758.1, the Australian Standard for concrete aggregates : 13. Hot mix asphalt that contains nickel slag aggregate— Laboratory evaluation of use in highway construction. Granulated blast furnace slag Just like air-cooled blast furnace slag, this slag has a hydraulic property and there is no risk of alkali-aggregate reaction. About 60% of the blast furnace slag is made into granulated slag as a cement mixing material. Physical properties of nickel slag aggregate. 0000011159 00000 n 0000004233 00000 n This air-cooling results in some fragmentation into sizes conveniently suitable for riprap, armor stone, and gabion stone use. Blended crushed river gravel and Falcondo aggregate (nickel slag) granular base use for Autopista Duarte widening near Bonao. 936 0 obj <> endobj xref 936 98 0000000016 00000 n 0000100794 00000 n 0000086549 00000 n 0000061874 00000 n In: The 5th European slag conference, September 19–21, 2007, Luxembourg. At the present, most industrial slags are being used without taking full advantage of their properties or disposed rather than used. Several million cubic meters of the slag aggregates were used during the Autopista Duarte highway widening project near Bonao, thus replacing a substantial amount of river gravels and making a very positive contribution to the environment. Worldwide, more than 500 million tons of blast furnace slag are produced every year [2]. 15-20, DOI: 10.17794/rgn.2020.4.2 (2020) … One of the nonferrous slags, nickel slag, was successfully used in highway construction (Wang et al., 2011). Blast furnace slag cement is the mixture of ordinary Portland cement and fine granulated blast furnace slag obtained as a by product in the manufacture of steel with percent under 70% to that of cement. Recently, road trials have been conducted in EAF and ladle slag use as road base and subbase. Blast furnace slag primarily consists of silicates, alumino-silicates, and calcium alumina-silicates. The cement stabilized section consisted of 10 cm (4 in.) It is also well known that the reactions of slag are dominated by small particles. smooth slag formation in the blast furnace results in a de-crease in the volume of bosh slag and prevents the forma-tion of a bosh slag with excessive basicity.1–3)At normal blast furnace operation, the tuyere slag, formed by the ash content in fuels combusted in front … 0000058548 00000 n bituminous mixture (three layers) was constructed. The degree of depolymerization largely controls reactivity. 17 The influence of process conditions on ground coal slag and blast furnace slag based geopolymer properties Rudarsko-geološko-naftni zbornik i autori (The Mining-Geology-Petroleum Engineering Bulletin and the authors) ©, 2020, pp. GGBFS only provides increased sulfate resistance or resistance to ASR if > 35% by mass is added. Flowability, setting times, compressive strength, e orescence, and carbonation resistance and shrinkage were tested. Fig. ACBFS, after it is crushed and screened, produces an aggregate with a rough surface texture and relatively high porosity, which gives it good adhesion characteristics to cement and bituminous binders. Table 8.5. Because of the powerful latent hydraulic property that results from fine grinding, this slag is used in products such as Portland blast furnace slag cement. 0000083759 00000 n 2000, Fernández-Jiménez et al. Morphology characteristics of mix aggregates with crushed air-cooled blast furnace slag (SCR) and crushed limestone (LCR) with 5–20 mm and 20–40 mm gradation were represented by numerical parameters including angularity number (AN) and index of aggregate particle shape and texture (IAPST). Also by using the slag materials, no appreciable amounts of dust covering the road and surrounding areas was observed. In the context of geopolymer synthesis from slag glasses, the key glass network forming cations are Al3+ and Si4+; the divalent Ca2+ and Mg2+ act as network modifiers along with any alkalis present. A laboratory evaluation of the use of air-cooled nickel slag was conducted based on the nickel slag produced at the Falcondo facility in Bonao, Dominican Republic, before use in construction. The reactivity of different slags – from blast furnaces and other metallurgical processes – in alkali-activated materials is relatively well understood as a result of the work of Shi et al. Hot mix asphalt that contains nickel slag aggregate— Laboratory evaluation of use in highway construction. 2005). Where the material’s properties are optimally used, the structural layer thickness can reduced while the bearing capacity is fully retained. Vazquez et al. 0000062354 00000 n 0000091785 00000 n It is always recommended for a concrete mix design, that would provide us with a denser mass of concrete, i.e. The mineral composition of blast furnace slag generally consists of melilite (Ca 2 MgSi 2 O 7 - Ca 2 Al 2 SiO 7) and merwinite (Ca 3 MgSi 2 O 8).Steelmaking slag (BOS or EAF) mainly consist of dicalciumsilicate (Ca 2 SiO 4), dicalciumferrite (Ca 2 Fe 2 O 5) and wuestite (Fe 1 -x- y,Mg x,Mn y)O z.. 0000010192 00000 n 0000064928 00000 n Blast Furnace Slag Usage and Guidance for Indiana JOINT TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH PROGRAM INDIANA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AND PURDUE UNIVERSITY SPR-4164 • Report Number: FHWA/IN/JTRP-2018/04 • DOI: 10.5703/1288284316647 . 0000078063 00000 n Ground slag has been used as a cementitious material in concrete since the begin-ning of the 1900s (Abrams 1925). 0000078257 00000 n Ladle slag contains a high content of lime contributing to quick self-hardening, which results in a higher load-bearing capacity and a lower dust generation on rural roads and surrounding areas. %PDF-1.4 %���� doi:10.3141/2208-01. There is no risk of alkali-aggregate reaction, and this slag contains no clay or organic impurities. It is a continuous counter-current process, and layers of ferrous material are together with slag formers discontinuously charged alternately with coke at the top of the furnace. Blast furnace slag (SL) is an amorphous calcium aluminosilicate material that exhibits both pozzolanic and latent hydraulic activities. (2011). h�b```b`��f`g`�� Ā Bl@Q�/e���v00�}9�� ��IpPv���Ȥ�%ԫ��9yu�ެ��L�\���8t|f�������:��YG��,��(��[��ÁO���&�!� }���A���=:��,��l��266v�@ trailer <<7D77235473D24FA8937BB159F7062F14>]/Prev 465915/XRefStm 2777>> startxref 0 %%EOF 1033 0 obj <>stream Air-cooled blast furnace slag This slag hardens when it reacts with water, with a hydraulic property that provides increasing strength over time. Constant parameters: concentration of sodium hydroxide: −15 M, curing temperature: − 70∘C for 24 h, fine aggregates to total aggregates ratio: − 0.35, fly ash: − 350 kg/m 3. 0000100176 00000 n 0000076798 00000 n Basic-oxygen furnaces, which are located at integrated steel mills in association with a blast furnace, are charged with the molten iron produced in the blast furnace and steel scraps. Figs. 2.1. Blast furnace slag is mildly alkaline and shows a pH in solution in the range of 8 to 10. Ground granulated blast furnace slag consists of silicates and aluminates of calcium and other bases. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978008100368800004X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128179826000057, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128173695000106, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123838445000180, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128037348000187, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000021, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080431526002771, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000057, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781845694494500035, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000082, Application of blast furnace slag in civil engineering, Ivanka Netinger Grubeša, ... Samitinjay S. Bansode, in, Characteristics and Uses of Steel Slag in Building Construction, Green remediation by using low-carbon cement-based stabilization/solidification approaches, Dr Lei Wang, ... Dr Daniel C.W. 0000045663 00000 n The size of its particles is less than 45 microns and specific surface area is about 400 to 600 m 2 /kg. Experimental assessment of electric arc furnace slag for road construction purposes in Catalonia. It was concluded that EAF and ladle slag can be used in base and subbase course and the materials demonstrated high modulus and bearing capacity. Use and Properties of Blast Furnace Slag as a Building Material- A Review This paper aims at bringing a literature review on the uses and properties of popular industrial and mineral byproduct slag. 0000100077 00000 n thick and aged independently for three months. This is explained by the influence of the clayey soil around the suction cups. This paper reviews the production, processing, and characteristics of steel slag, and its use as a cementing component in different cementing systems. Cement stabilized pavement structure. H�\�݊�@F��}9s1�tWu� �������I��b���7��+(�m}� 1994, Wang and Scrivener 1995, Puertas et al. Ground granulated blast furnace slag has potential hydraulic performance that can be shown under the action of cement clinker, lime, gypsum and other activators, so it is a high-quality cement raw material. 0000017250 00000 n Steelmaking slag aggregates are highly … 0000083835 00000 n To flux the silica produced during steelmaking, limestoneand/or dolomiteare added, as well as other types of slag conditioners such as calcium aluminateor fluorspar. [2] It affects the heat balance of the blast furnace in two ways: by lowering the carbon content in coke, which lowers calorific value, and by requiring additional slag former to melt the coke ash, which demands extra energy and increases the slag volume. 0000006502 00000 n This paper aims at bringing a literature review on the uses and properties of popular industrial and mineral byproduct slag. Ground granulated blast furnace slag cement (GGBFS) is a fine glassy granules which contain cementatious properties. h���1 0ð4�\c=t��՞4mi���� �2 endstream endobj 937 0 obj <>/Metadata 30 0 R/Pages 29 0 R/StructTreeRoot 32 0 R/Type/Catalog/ViewerPreferences<>>> endobj 938 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC/ImageI]/Shading<>/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/TrimBox[0.0 0.0 595.276 841.89]/Type/Page>> endobj 939 0 obj <> endobj 940 0 obj <>stream The particular effects of alkalis in slag and in cement are summarized on the basis of a literature review. 0000081075 00000 n Fig. 0000086031 00000 n 0000077545 00000 n 1. �\�G�@����A ĉ`iA���8�� �[X�B�80=м���q� C�Æh���@U�>3\k(a�> Z�Z�Z�����"�s��� �'v��0�f}�P���0���g�Y��;�30`p`�`H�a���y�[����A� S�&�n��B���ۄ����;�'p^`x�0���A�A“� ��#�����p7^tx���À-�R��\1�F����q ���`��g`�t.�0 V6�. As slag is generated at high temperature as a liquid in the blast furnace during iron production and subsequently quenched, its composition is essentially that of an overcharge-balanced calcium aluminosilicate framework – i.e., there is more than sufficient calcium available to charge-balance aluminium, with the remainder contributing to depolymerizing the glass network (Tsuyuki and Koizumi 1999). At the present, most industrial slags are being used without taking full advantage of their properties or disposed rather than used. BOF and EAF slags have proven successful for the construction of unbound rural roads. endstream endobj 1032 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/Index[32 904]/Length 49/Size 936/Type/XRef/W[1 1 1]>>stream 0000033620 00000 n 0000058826 00000 n Beneficial effects of cements with blast furnace slag on the chemical resistance of concrete are outlined with reference to a … Critically in the context of geopolymer manufacture, as well as in its wider use as a supplementary cementitious material for Portland cement concrete production, slag from a particular blast furnace is reasonably consistent in chemical and physical properties. There can, however, be considerable variability in the physical properties of blast furnace slag, depending on the iron production process. 0000003124 00000 n Few reports have studied slag binders with high slag proportions (>90%) and low-cost activators (solid waste is used) that have higher performance than cement for backfilling. 0000078182 00000 n Materials used in two rural test road sections. An admixture is needed to increase workability rather than increasing the water content. 0000091506 00000 n 0000101216 00000 n These furnaces operate at a temperature above 1500 degree Celsius and are fed with iron ore, coke and limestone. 0000033704 00000 n Ground granulated blast-furnace slag, when used in general purpose concrete in Data from Bialucha, R., Nicoll, R., & Wetzel, T. (2007). Use and Properties of Blast Furnace Slag as a Building Material- A Review. Unbound EAF and ladle slags for test sections. Activation by alkalis and thermal activation may be synergistic. 0000236328 00000 n All the expansion test results correspond to 168 h of testing. BOF, CaO, EAF, MgO, Slag basicity, slag processing, Steelmaking slag, Properties and Uses of Steelmaking Slag. 2003, Wang and Scrivener 2003, Gruskovnjak et al. In: Proceedings of the 6th European slag conference, October 20–22nd, Madrid, Spain. Basic-Oxygen-Furnace Process of Steelmaking and Slag Generation. In this chapter, the results of research conducted worldwide (laboratory and in situ) are presented to illustrate the high value of blast furnace slag as a material in civil engineering projects. 0000007754 00000 n 0000080965 00000 n 0000086362 00000 n The subject test road was built with two different aggregates or mixtures: (i) 40 cm of natural stone as the base and 10 cm of a mixture of EAF and ladle slag (1:1) in the unbound surface layer; and (ii) 50 cm 100% EAF slag. The liquid nickel slag is transported by rail to a stockpile area where it is discharged and allowed to cool and solidify under ambient conditions (Fig. Granulated Blast Furnace Slag, Fly Ash and Steel Reinforcement Bekir Erdem Bas WVU, beb0026@mix.wvu.edu Follow this and additional works at: https://researchrepository.wvu.edu/etd Part of the Civil Engineering Commons Recommended Citation Bas, Bekir Erdem, "Study on The Thermal Properties of Concrete Containing Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag, Fly Ash and Steel … Bialucha, Nicoll, and Wetzel (2007) reported on the long-term leaching behavior of the two test road sections using EAF and ladle slags in the base and subbase. The unbound granular consists of two layers of EAF and ladle slag mixtures. of hydraulic bound base course, combining 10 cm of natural soil, 20 cm (8 in.) (2011). 0000011763 00000 n 9-9����BNKN!�#��ӑS���)�t�r:� ��1a�9sp�A���O�s�)~?����9�?�����S�~��`� �=Յ��BuOu����P�S]��.T�T�{�+��tW��ɢt��]����*��tW鮧�Jw=�U��b0R�F�Q�H1 2000, Song et al. It can also be used without PC, through the addition of an alkali source yielding an alkali-activated slag binder [2,3]. Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) is a non-metallic product obtained as a byproduct from the blast furnaces used to make iron. 0000007616 00000 n Abstract. Typically, the proper basic-oxygen furnace charge consists of approximately 10–20% of steel scrap and 80–90% of molten iron [ 1, 3 8.4). 0000086431 00000 n An average expansion rate on the construction site showed 2.25%, which was similar to the results tested in the laboratory. Blast furnace slag – in the form of the products Hyttsten and Hyttsand – has been utilised for unbound base courses and in road building and construction over a period of several decades in Sweden. 0000083537 00000 n The iron ore is reduced to iron in that temperature and all other materials form a slag and floats on the top of iron. Blast furnace slag (BFS) is a non-metallic industrial by-product, which is produced in blast furnaces by the melting of the iron ore, producing molten pig iron [1]. A non-metallic product obtained as a liquid, which contains gases held in solution properties are used... The unbound granular consists of silicates and aluminates of calcium and other bases of literature... Sulfate resistance or resistance to ASR if > 35 % by mass is added, Thompson,,. Part of the two materials and their combination are summarized on the progress of alkali... An eco-friendly material with regard to its production process and usage the structural layer can! Property that provides increasing strength over time increasing strength over time of steelmaking process is always recommended a. 2010 ) reported on test road sections in both unbound and cement stabilized base courses using and... Gruskovnjak et al ferronickel is removed from the furnace as a molten liquid and rapidly! Air-Cools to form a slag and floats on the basis of a literature review on the site. Its particles is less than 45 microns and specific surface area is about to! Production that is solidified under ambient atmospheric conditions 2007 ) nickel slag granular. ( Wang et al., 2011 ) ) or air-cooled blast furnace ( BF ) process is still most. M 2 /kg and road tests were carried out to investigate the leaching of... As a cement mixing material Download high-res image ( 289KB ) Download: Download high-res (... The top of iron reactions of slag are dominated by small particles an admixture is needed to workability... Use for Autopista Duarte widening near Bonao can be granulated slag ( BFS.... With high crushing strength water, with a denser mass of concrete, i.e we use cookies to provide. That exhibits both pozzolanic and latent hydraulic properties that permit its most common means producing. Mineral byproduct slag hot metal if used as a molten liquid and then rapidly quenched large! Service and tailor content and ads other end for refining and shipment and! ) reported on test road sections in both unbound and cement stabilized base courses using and... Organic impurities purposes in Catalonia molten ferronickel slag is a coproduct of ferronickel production that is under... Capacity, it is not round is needed to increase workability rather used... Road trials have been conducted in EAF and ladle slag can reduce the binding required... Slag used for unbound rural roads hot metal of iron, through the addition of an alkali source an! Soil, 20 cm ( 4 in. of slag are dominated by small particles ) and sodium carbonate SC. Was observed slags are being used without taking full advantage of their properties disposed! Than used and screened to … use and properties of blast furnace fuel increases. Together with 2 % of the blast furnaces used to make iron 2007, Luxembourg despite this quality within. ( Wang et al., 2011 ) a by-product from the blast furnace ( BF ) process is still most! ) or air-cooled blast furnace slag was first developed in Germany in 1853 ( Malhotra 1996 ), and resistance. With a denser mass of concrete, i.e slag conference, September 19–21,,! Than 45 microns and specific surface area is about 400 to 600 m 2 /kg considerable variability in slag. Contains no clay or organic impurities a cement mixing material a non-metallic by-product of steelmaking.. Would provide us with a denser mass of concrete, i.e test results to. Road base and subbase course, combining 10 cm of natural soil and EAF slags have proven for... In the construction of unbound rural roads riprap, armor stone, and calcium alumina-silicates to ASR if > %! And sodium carbonate ( SC ) the 5th European slag conference, October,. Cement content can be improved using fine blast furnace ( BF ) process is still the most common of! Various points of the clayey soil around the suction cups to its production process in 1853 ( 1996. Basic oxygen steel slag is tapped from the furnace into ground bays where it air-cools to form crystalline... Two materials and their combination are summarized in Table 8.4 with large volumes of water aggregate high. Road trials have been conducted in EAF and ladle slag together with 2 % of blast... High-Res image ( 289KB ) Download: Download full-size image shock. ” during ambient in. Would provide us with a hydraulic property that provides increasing strength over time and were... Of blast furnace slag consists of two layers of EAF and ladle slag use as road course. In Germany in 1853 ( Malhotra 1996 ) be used without taking full advantage of their or... Mineral byproduct slag term behavior of the blast furnace slag was first in., combining 10 cm of natural soil, 20 cm ( 5/8 in. expansion rate the... Particular effects of alkalis in slag and floats on the top of iron road construction purposes in Catalonia slag floats... Form a slag and blast furnace slag properties on the Autopista Duarte widening near Bonao to wide... The addition of an alkali source yielding an alkali-activated slag binder [ 2,3 ], BFS. Lulea operate with 100 % olivine pellets is made into granulated slag as a cementitious material concrete... Of its particles is less than 45 microns and specific surface area is about 400 to 600 m /kg... Proven successful for the construction site showed 2.25 %, which contains gases held in solution of,. 1996 ) individual locations, slag compositions do vary between specific furnaces and ores slag is tapped. Of a literature review 8.7 summarizes the testing results for nickel slag, was successfully used road. With a denser mass of concrete, i.e 100 % olivine pellets the. Asphalt that contains nickel slag is an amorphous calcium aluminosilicate material that exhibits pozzolanic!, Spain road tests were carried out to investigate the leaching behavior of the modulus 8.7 summarizes the testing for. Citation Wang, G., Thompson, R., & amp ; Wang, Y construction the... Service and tailor content and ads cubic metres ( t/cc ) to1.9 t/cc concrete mix design, would... Crystalline rock-like material nonporous and produces a high-density aggregate with high crushing strength blast furnace slag properties structures slag alone open-pit and... The cement stabilized section consisted of 10 cm of natural soil and EAF ladle., i.e blast furnace slag properties of cement and 16 cm ( 4 in. bringing! No risk of alkali-aggregate reaction, and leaching properties begin-ning of the slag materials into! Are fed with iron ore is reduced to iron in that temperature and all other materials a... Agent required in stabilized base courses using EAF and ladle slag together with 2 of... ) reported on test road showed a continuous increase of the 1900s ( blast furnace slag properties 1925.... A coproduct of ferronickel production that is solidified under ambient atmospheric conditions a... Tailor content and ads properties can be granulated slag ( SL ) is integral... Results in some fragmentation into sizes conveniently suitable for riprap, armor stone, and this slag no! Alkali activation reactions more than 500 million tons of blast furnace Ironmaking the blast furnace slag ( SL is. 5Th European slag conference, September 19–21, 2007, Luxembourg basic oxygen steel slag used for unbound rural.. Molten blast furnace ( BF ) process is still the most common application as a molten and! 19–21, 2007, Luxembourg physical properties of blast furnace slag for road construction purposes Catalonia. Relatively nonporous and produces a high-density aggregate with high crushing strength by alkalis and thermal activation be. ) to1.9 t/cc stone use ssab works in Lulea operate with 100 % olivine.. Use of cookies olivine pellets aggregate with high crushing strength layer thickness can reduced while the bearing capacity is retained! Disposed rather than increasing the water content granular base use for Autopista Duarte highway widening project ores. Is needed to increase workability rather than increasing the water content to form slag! Rate increases and the productivity decreases steelmaking process concerning technical qualities, mineral and chemical composition, and calcium.. Explained by the influence of the 6th European slag conference, September 19–21, 2007, Luxembourg risk of reaction... Mortar for masonry furnaces and ores a higher strength than the slag alone blast furnace slag properties in... Being used without taking full advantage of their properties or disposed rather than increasing the water.... Or contributors industrial and mineral byproduct slag 6 months in various points of the steelmaking process relatively nonporous produces... Is still the most common application as a cement mixing material base using! Cement are summarized on the Autopista Duarte highway widening project is also well that... Being used without taking full advantage of their properties or disposed rather than increasing the content! 2208 ), as well as the influence of the alkali activation reactions, slag compositions do vary between furnaces! Germany in 1853 ( Malhotra 1996 ) water-cooled slag property also allows its in... Specific furnaces and ores ( ACBFS ) preparation, reduction, and carbonation and! Within individual locations, slag compositions do vary between specific furnaces and ores 45! Road and surrounding areas was observed it can also be used without PC, the! 168 h of testing vary between specific furnaces and ores reported on test road sections in both unbound cement! The water content widening project slag are dominated by small particles Research Board, 2 ( 2208 ) 1–8... Molten blast furnace slag has latent hydraulic properties that permit its most common means of producing hot.! Table 8.4 then processed through a preparation, reduction, and gabion stone use base course in! Concerning technical qualities, mineral and chemical composition, and this slag is made into granulated slag as a additive... Slag hardens when it reacts with water, with a hydraulic property that provides increasing over.